Chirality is a very active field of research in organic chemistry, closely linked to the concept of symmetry. Topology, a well-established concept in mathematics, has nowadays become essential to describe condensed matter [1,2]. At its core are chiral electron states on the bulk, surfaces and edges of the condensed matter systems, in which spin and momentum of the electrons are locked parallel or anti-parallel to each other. Magnetic and non-magnetic Weyl semimetals, for example, exhibit chiral bulk states that have enabled the realization of predictions from high energy and astrophysics involving the chiral quantum number, such as the chiral anomaly, the mixed axial-gravitational anomaly and axions [3-5]. Chiral topological crystals exhibit excellent chiral surface states [6,7] and different orbital angular momentum for the enantiomers, which can be advantageous in catalysis. The potential for connecting chirality as a quantum number to other chiral phenomena across different areas of science, including the asymmetry of matter and antimatter and the homochirality of life, brings topological materials to the fore .
Sustainable nanotechnology is the research and development of nanomaterials that have economic and societal benefits with minimal adverse environmental impacts. Hence, there is a search for nano-synthetic methods that utilize sustainable materials, reagents, and processes using safer solvents with reduced energy, reductants, and capping or dispersing agents. Notable developments include Safer-by-design concepts, biologically-inert SiO2, microwave irradiation, and the use of biomass, sugars, and flavonoid precursors. This talk presents a new frontier for greener nanomaterials due to their tunable surface properties, high sorption capacities, and excellent reactivities. Case studies will be presented from the authors' laboratories for the design of a portable IMPACT analyzer for environmental and health monitoring. IMPACT analyzer is equipped with poly (amic) acid membrane filter electrodes (PMFE) arrays to sense, degrade, and remove halogenated organics, metal ions and proteins will be discussed. The materials provide superior properties that can meet society's expectations for a safer environment and sustainable future.
Biological or clinical phenotypes arise from the biochemical state of a cell or tissue which, in turn, is the result of the composition of biomolecules, their organization and interactions in the cell. The biochemical state is determined in part by the genotype and by signals the cell senses. At present, there is neither a comprehensive theory nor computational models that generally predict the cellular response to genotypic changes or other signals and to thus predict phenotypes or the response pharmacological intervention. Nevertheless, such predictions are frequently attempted, particularly in clinical research, exemplified by personalized/precision medicine (PM), and if successful would identify new therapeutic targets and biomarkers. It is generally assumed that the state of the proteome closely determines the biochemical state of the cell and, therefore, proteomics has become a central technology for PM and basic biology. To date most proteomic measurements have focused on the identification and quantification of one or several polypeptides per protein coding gene. Yet, the proteome displays a wealth of additional types of information that are functionally highly relevant and remain essentially uncharted. These include the resolution of products of specific genes to the level of proteoforms and their function, the identification of PTM’s and their function and the organization of proteins into complexes and interaction networks. In this presentation we will discuss mass spectrometry-based methods to measure the proteome at different layers (sequence, abundance, PTM’s, interactions and shape) and strategies to integrate the acquired datasets towards increased mechanistic understanding of biological processes. It can be expected that these developments further increase the significance of proteomics for the life sciences.
Over the past decade mitochondrial function and dysfunction have turned out to be so central to biomedical questions that we are no longer surprised to read papers where mitochondria are involved in pathways as diverse as innate immunity, oxygen sensing and response to viral infections. Consequently we want to know more about how mitochondria function and go wrong in vivo. Furthermore, as mitochondria are cropping up in so many human pathologies there is a growing interest in developing therapies focussed on preventing mitochondrial damage. In both these areas the development of biological chemistry approaches is a clear way to both develop new probes of mitochondrial function in vivo and in coming up with new therapies. Here I will survey approaches that have been used to date and suggest possible ways forward for the emerging field of the biological chemistry of the mitochondrion.
Unfortunately, Prof. Dr. Mir Wais Hosseini had to cancel his talk due to personal reasons.